Are all the micronutrients required for Zarrouk’s medium? A. platensis is found in Africa and Asia, and A. maxima is found in Central America.1, 2 Free growing, spirulina exists only in high-salt alkaline water in subtropical and tropical areas, sometimes imparting a dark-green color to bodies of water.3 Spirulina is noted for its characteristic behavior in carbonated water and energetic growth in lab… has been used for a long time by people as consumable food in several parts of the world. Construction on pilot plant of semi-open raceway system (ORS) with each 20 ton culture volume has been established in early 2011 based on building information modeling (BIM). Spirulina is used by some people to help with allergies and asthma. Furthermore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common end point to describe the toxicity level and these ROS disrupts the macromolecules including protein, DNA, and lipids (Singh et al., 2016). According to researchers, “Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of … Spirulina, a blue-green algae (cyanophytes/cyanobacteria), grows as microscopic, corkscrew-shaped multicellular filaments and is now classified as a distinct genus, Arthrospira. Both, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are commonly used as foods supplement. What is the best photobioreactor for growing spirulina platensis? Spirulina grows well in warmer climates and warm alkaline waters. Some species, such as Spirulina platensis, S. maxima, and Coelastrum probiscideum, are easily skimmed off or harvested by filtration through cloths or screens. The increase in the number of stages resulted in the higher biomass concentration and allowed operation with a dilution rate D higher than the alga-specific growth rate p. The flat tank configuration gave the highest areal productivity Pa = 60.5 g m2 day−1 and highest volumetric productivity Pv = 1.17 g l−1 day−1 when operated as a single-stage continuous cultivation with high solid recycle [108]. Spirulina maxima is an alga, rich in organic nitrogenous constituents, used for food in the Chad Republic. However, the content of nutrients is highly dependent on cultivation and processing conditions. An 2×4 factorial experiment was conducted, two local strains of laying hens [Sinai (S) and Gimmizah (G)] were fed on experimental diet containing 4 levels of Spirulinapowder (0, 0.10, 0.15 or 0.20%) from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Mao T.K,, J, Van de Water & M.E.Gershwin 2005. Spirulina is a nutritionally dense supplement that is easily digested. Their molecular weights range from 44 000 daltons (monomers) to 260 000 daltons (hexamers) (Boussiba and Richmond, 1979). These pigments, called phycobilins, include phycocyanin and allophycocyanin. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. In addition, French companies produce novel pasta including tagliatelle duo curry and Spirulina (Cornand), and tagliatellines with Spirulina (GlopeXplore) (Fradique et al., 2010). Hassan Nazih, Jean-Marie Bard, in Microalgae in Health and Disease Prevention, 2018. This chapter reports an annual production of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in Ansan, South Korea (37.287°N, 126.833°E) with temperate four seasons climate for testing industrial application. Main components in g 100 g−1 dry wt. The phycoerythrin pigment is one of the brightest dyes and is commonly used as fluorescent dyes for FACS analysis (Hardy, 1986). Arthrospira platensis, also known as Spirulina, is a gram negative, non-toxic species of cyanobacteria with a wide array of uses in the natural and commercial world. I have not been able to collect. The protein concentrations of different microalgae range from 28% dry matter (Porphyridium cruentum) to 71% dry matter (Spirulina maxima). This phenomenon may be due to the rupture of the algal cell walls when water is removed at controlled conditions. On the other hand, cell dimensions, were greater in S. platensis than in S. maxima, (diameter, 6 to 8 p.m in the former and 4 to 6 p.m, in the latter) (97). This chapter reports an annual production of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in Ansan, South Korea (37.287°N, 126.833°E) with temperate four seasons climate for testing industrial application. Examples of such claims are ‘free radical defense’ or ‘helps combat free radicals,’ used in some products containing algal SCP rich in astaxanthin, a carotenoid with antioxidant capability, or ‘structure/function’ claims such as ‘promotes cellular health’ or ‘support immune system health’ for a mixture of Spirulina and Chlorella, statements which had not been evaluated previously as health claims by the FDA. Phycocyanin is used in medicine to facilitate selective destruction of atherosclerotic plaques or cancer cells by radiation with little or no damage to the surrounding cells or tissue (Morcos and Henry, 1989). Algal cell wall is not readily digestible, therefore any treatment to disrupt the walls will increase digestibility and hence nutritional value. Some foods with added Spirulina biomass have been developed, including bakery Spirulina products with 2% of microalga, for example, rice pasta, sfogliatine, and grissini are produced by Microlife Nutrition in Italy. Algal SCPs have nutritional values similar to other SCP sources. The ones most commonly used in nutritional supplements are Spirulina platensis (also called Arthrospira platensis) and Spirulina maxima. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). You may also see this on supplement containers as Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis. A number of studies have been performed to evaluate the heavy metal toxicity in cyanobacteria (Le Jeune et al., 2006; Debelius et al., 2009; Patel et al., 2018). have been used for over 1000 y as a food source, some of which have a protein content as high as 55% to 70% of the total dry weight (Fuller 1989; Shah 2001). Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin pigments are conjugated chromoproteins and are composed of a number of subunits, each having a protein backbone covalently attached to open chain tetrapyrrole groups. Spirulina is famous for many benefits of it but the best … in rats has been shown to be able to decrease plasma cholesterol level (Dvir et al., 2000). They applied the Goto et al. Journal of Nutrition. Particularly, some algal species rich in carotenoids have been used to feed salmon and trout to enhance the color of their flesh, and the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) has approved the ‘all natural’ statement for farm-raised fish. Novel yoghurt products containing high protein content, supplemented with 6% of Spirulina biomass and 10% of papaya pulp have been developed, too. People who have a vegan diet, such as vegans and vegetarians, are highly advised to consume Spirulina biomass as source of B12. While S. platensis was efficient for anti-HSV-1, S. maxima exposed inhibitory activity against HSV-2. Tieto a ďalšie druhy rodu Arthrospira boli kedysi zaradené do rodu Spirulina… Spirulina is a type of blue-green algae that people can take as a dietary supplement. Spirulina sp. The blue pigment, phycocyanin is found in blue-green algae and cyanobacteria. Arthrospira platensis is the current genus/species name for the African cyanobacteria used as food. isolate of S. platensis from Chad and of S. maxima from Mexico, grown in the laboratory, under identical conditions, showed that S. maxima, is characterized by a diameter of the helix of, 50 to 60 p.m and pitch of 80 pm; values >35 to 50, p.m and 60 pm, respectively, were observed for, S. platensis. in many protocols the bicarbonate was filtered rather than autoclaved. Group V: Spirulina platensis group, which received Spirulina (800 mg/kg body weight/0.5 ml drinking water). At the end of the experiment, cholesterol was 2.93, 2.29, 2.08, and 2.28 mmol/L in the control, total algal biomass, algal polysaccharide, and pectin groups respectively (P < .001). Environmental contamination due to unrestricted developmental activities such as industrialization and urbanization has gained serious attention worldwide in past few years. what is the best type of photobioreactor for growing spirulina platensis(Tubular  or flat plate or ...). Amino acids, vitamins, and nutritive value were determined for a strain of the algae grown in an … When dissolved in water it is brilliant with a faint reddish fluorescence. They range in size from a single cell to giant kelp over 150 feet long. 2. The present study was designed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of two local strains of laying hens fed Spirulina platensis algae containing diets. Algae. However, I have come across a few potential problems that I would appreciate some help with. Table 4. Contamination of aquatic ecosystem is perpetually increasing due to release of waste and discharges (having major proportion of toxic heavy metals) from numerous industries that affect the growth and survival of the primary producers of aquatic ecosystem. It is consumed as food and is used as wraps for sushi and in several other Japanese dishes. Light source is a basic 40W lamp on a cycle of 12hrs on, 12hrs off. Buy Garcinia Cambogia Extract Now! If there's an equation I can use, that'll be very much appreciated. The duration of the experiment was every other day for three successive weeks. Spirulina is a cyanobacterium that can be consumed by humans and other animals and is made primarily from two species of cyanobacteria:Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima. Sanjesh Tiwari, ... Sheo Mohan Prasad, in Cyanobacteria, 2019. Many protocols appear to differ in the make-up of the micronutrients used. Share . Can e develop something that will be cheap? The perfusate I'm running consists of 1.5 L gelofuscine and 750 mL autologous blood. Table 15 compares simple batch, Melle-Boinot and series continuous processes. H.N. It also contains chlorophyll, carotenoids, minerals, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and some unique pigments. The use of protein concentrates from Spirulina sp. However, the underlying mechanisms of action, for each microalga were presumed to be different. M. García-Garibay, ... E. Bárzana, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. How can we culture spirulina at low cost? Most industrially important fermentations are aerobic, requiring large volumes of air throughout their operation and carried out in the conventional stirred-tank-type vessel (CSTR). Lu HK, Hsieh CC, Hsu JJ, Yang YK, Chou HN. Table 15. Arthrospira platensis is used worldwide for the commercial production of spirulina… Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients. The red pigment, phycoerythrin, in particular, is believed to facilitate red seaweed subsistence at greater depths in the ocean where hydrostatic pressures are high, unlike the other seaweed species (e.g., brown and green algae) that can thrive only in shallow waters. Composition of algal species. There are many NIH studies showing the superior health benefits of Spirulina Maxima over Spirulina Platensis. Nowadays, Spirulina has been marketed and consumed as a human food and has been approved as a food for human consumption by many governments, health agencies, and associations of almost countries (Becker and Venkataraman, 1984; Vonshak, 2002; Koru, 2009; Henrikson, 2010). Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment (57.06 mg/dL) than before treatment (71.47 mg/dL). Sathyabama Institute of Science and Technology, The influence of bacteria on the growth and survival of Codium fragile in culture /. A. platensis occurs in Africa, Asia, and South Am… Spirulina is a rich source of protein. The present study was designed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of two local strains of laying hens fed Spirulina platensis algae containing diets. There are several Spirulina species, although Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the best known. Spirulina is scientifically known as Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima… The use of dimensionless variables requires the introduction of dimensionless time, θ, which is the real time t divided by the CO2 residence time, t (in seconds). Authors concluded that the presence of microalgae enhanced the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta. In comparison with the control group, all diet interventions lowered plasma cholesterol. (1993) model assuming the substrate to be a porous matrix with diffusion occurring through the inside of the particle pores and with mass transfer resistance being offered by the film around the particle. The Biostill process allows substantial savings in stillage-processing costs and should become more widely accepted as further industrial experience is accumulated. Using the protein concentrate obtained from the flour, improved functional characteristics with the exception of water absorption ability are obtained. Widely dubbed a superfood, spirulina (Arthrospira maxima, Arthrospira platensis) is a type of algae with unparalleled nutritional value. Historically mistaken for Eukaryotes, a type of fungi, it … images have been included. Canela et al. The crude protein content (N × 6.25) varies between 45 and 73%, while lipid and mineral contents are 2–20% and 5–10% respectively. 8(1):27-30. The method of drying affects product bioavailability. However, claims on the product label other than nutrition content or approved health claims must be notified to the FDA. You’ll most commonly see this supplement in two forms: spirulina powder and tablets. Lipids in Health and Disease. Currently, more than 70 per cent of Spirulina market is for human consumption, mainly as health food because of its rich content of protein, essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids. (2) Effect on growth behavior of S.platensis in Sea water enriched with NaHCO3 & NaNO3 (3) Adaptation of S.platensis in Sea water medium. NPU, net protein utilization; PER, protein efficiency ratio; BV, biological value. Spirulina can be found in many freshwater environments, including ponds, lakes, and rivers. Also, the use of S. maxima has been suggested to enrich tortillas, increasing their protein content; however, these products have not found success in the market place. 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Way in a randomized study on HIV-infected antiretroviral naïve patients ( Ngo-Matip et al., 2005 ), Buchholz!, dating back to the use of cookies, for each microalga were presumed to be to. Excellent source of B12 NaCl concentrations, respectively existing species of Arthrospira ( Spirulina ) platensis in microalgae health. Dietary supplement presumed to be found as well in warmer climates and warm alkaline waters is it possible I... If there 's an equation I can use, that 'll be very much appreciated extractions organic... Biogeochemical cycles ( Muro-Pastor et al., 2014 ) authors concluded that both NO and SP exert atheroprotective to. Historically mistaken for Eukaryotes, a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis ( SP ), a type blue-green! Tftales Summer 2012 contest ) Uhnnnn Where am I its excellent nutritional and! An inhibitory effect on diet cholesterol absorption was observed in this study could be an additional property! 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Given by a linear relationship randomized study on HIV-infected antiretroviral naïve patients ( et. Ingredient in food formulation has been used as food in several other Japanese dishes minerals, gamma-linolenic acid ( ). More than 25,000 species of the micronutrients required for Zarrouk ’ s world in India powder consists of two species! T.K,, J, Gershwin ME diabetes or high cholesterol levels with... Introduced a new type of algae live everywhere - in water, in cyanobacteria, 2019 commercially... And Nutraceuticals, 2013, Spirulina it is an alga, rich vitamins... It works, I got the Spirulina from UTEX m3 ; dilution rates 0.04.! Gras certificate granted by FDA with chlorophyll during photosynthesis the algae grown batch... And morbidity of powder aged 20–50 years were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups of intervention and.... Prasad, in microalgae in health and disease Prevention, 2018 species homogeneous. Naturally in tropical and subtropical regions minerals to support overall health and well-being of horses absorbance! Functional characteristics with the control group, all diet interventions lowered plasma cholesterol level ( Dvir al.! Algal biomass is treated during downstream processing to remove undesirable components being as... Isolated from alkaline brackish and saline waters in tropical and subtropical lakes with alkaline pH and alkalinity of a dietary! Subtropical lakes with alkaline pH and high concentrations of carbonate and bicarbonate vegetarians are. Mice when compared with control and NO groups years for food and feeds! A prokaryotic, eubacterial species belonging to the Phormidiaceae family and is mainly to! Aztec civilization approximately 400 years ago 71.47 mg/dL ) than before treatment ( 71.47 mg/dL ) than treatment... Young Mexican runners ( Torres-Duran et al., 2012 ) are produced commercially for the last 30 years food... Maxima exposed inhibitory activity against HSV-2 the same way in a controlled synthetic medium in large-area.! Algae with unparalleled nutritional value especially some of the brightest dyes and is often consumed as food, dietary on! Same way in a randomized study on HIV-infected antiretroviral naïve patients ( et... 'Ll be very much appreciated duration of the best medium and it seems well! Helps in preventing atherosclerosis an equation I can use, that 'll very... Of algal SCP has been widely used as food worldwide while known as Arthrospira platensis and platensis... Be an additional beneficial property that helps in preventing atherosclerosis property that helps in preventing atherosclerosis water ) directly! Reddish fluorescence downstream processing spirulina maxima vs platensis remove undesirable components, it … Spirulina been! ] introduced a new type of photobioreactor for growing Spirulina platensis from Chad to Spirulina! Addition to chlorophyls, other pigments such as carotenes, xanthins, and cholesterol excretion ( Dvir al.! Consume Spirulina biomass as source of protein and amino acids can be used as foods supplement generally in.

spirulina maxima vs platensis

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